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Adolf Galland. The Forgotten Rebels of Eureka. Clare Wright. South of Darkness. John Marsden. The Whitlam Mob. Captain James Cook. Talking to My Country. Stan Grant. An Empty Coast. Tony Park. The Hunter. Black Rock White City. Richard de Crespigny. Paddy Manning. Tim Winton. Confessions of a Qantas Flight Attendant.
Owen Beddall. Australian History in 7 Questions. John Hirst. Jacks and Jokers. Island Home. Great Australian Outback Police Stories. Bill Marsh. The Secret Chord. Geraldine Brooks. Clive Small. Bert Hinkler. Grantlee Kieza. Back to the Pilliga.
Tony Parsons. Shane Jacobson. The Angels Weep. The Road Back. Di Morrissey. Dick Johnson. The Laughing Clowns. William McInnes. Error Australis. Ben Pobjie. Rain Music. Stalking of Julia Gillard. Kerry-Anne Walsh. As lawlessness was rampant at Greta, it was recognised that the police station could not be left without protection and Constable Alexander Fitzpatrick, who, like the Kellys, was also of Irish descent,  was ordered there for relief duty.
He was instructed to proceed directly to Greta but instead rode to the public house at Winton, five miles from Benalla police headquarters,  where he spent considerable time. On resuming his journey, he remembered that a couple of days previously he had seen in The Police Gazette an arrest warrant for Dan Kelly for horse stealing. He went to the Kelly house to arrest him, despite a police policy that at least two constables participate in visits to the Kelly homestead.
Finding Dan not at home, he remained with Kelly's mother and other family members, in conversation, for about an hour. According to Fitzpatrick, upon hearing someone chopping wood, he went to ensure that the chopping was licensed. The man proved to be William "Bricky" Williamson, a neighbour, who said that he needed a licence only if he was chopping on Crown land. The men proved to be the teenager Dan Kelly and his brother-in-law, Bill Skillion. Fitzpatrick returned to the house and made the arrest. Dan asked to be allowed to have dinner before leaving.
The constable consented, and took a seat near his prisoner. A struggle followed, and the brothers, assisted by their mother, Williamson and Skillian, soon overpowered the constable, and he was beaten to the ground insensible. On regaining consciousness, he was compelled by Ned Kelly to extract the bullet from his arm with a knife, so that it might not be used as evidence; and on promising to make no report against his assailants, he was allowed to depart.
He had ridden away about a mile when he found that two horsemen were pursuing, but by spurring his horse into a gallop he escaped. On regaining safety he no longer considered the promise which he had made to the criminals as binding but reported the affair to his superior officer. Fitzpatrick shall be the cause of greater slaughter to the rising generation than St. Patrick was to the snakes and toads in Ireland.
For had I robbed, plundered, ravished and murdered everything I met my character could not be painted blacker than it as present but thank God my conscience is as clear as the snow in Peru". In an interview three months before his execution, Kelly said that at the time of the incident, he was miles from home, and according to him, his mother had asked Fitzpatrick if he had a warrant, and Fitzpatrick said that he had only a telegram , to which his mother said that Dan need not go.
Ned Kelly : a short life / Ian Jones - Details - Trove
Fitzpatrick then said, pulling out a revolver, "I will blow your brains out if you interfere". His mother replied, "You would not be so handy with that popgun of yours if Ned were here". Dan then said, trying to trick Fitzpatrick, "There is Ned coming along by the side of the house". While he was pretending to look out of the window for Ned, Dan cornered Fitzpatrick, took the revolver and claimed that he had released Fitzpatrick unharmed. When Kelly was asked if Fitzpatrick tried to take liberties with his sister, Kate Kelly, he said "No, that is a foolish story; if he or any other policeman tried to take liberties with my sister, Victoria would not hold him".
Fitzpatrick rode to Benalla, where he reported that he had been attacked by Kelly as well as his brother Dan, his mother, a neighbour Bricky Williamson, and Kelly's brother-in-law, Bill Skillion. Fitzpatrick claimed that all except Kelly's mother had been armed with revolvers, that Kelly had shot him in the left wrist, and that Ellen Kelly had hit him on the helmet with a coal shovel. Williamson and Skillion were arrested for their part in the affair. Kelly and Dan were nowhere to be found, but Ellen was taken into custody, along with her baby, Alice. When Kelly was executed, his mother was still in prison.
Kelly asserted that he was not present, and that Fitzpatrick's wounds were self-inflicted. Kenneally, who interviewed the remaining Kelly brother, Jim Kelly, and Kelly cousin and gang providore Tom Lloyd, in addition to closely examining the report by the Royal Commission on the Police Force of Victoria, wrote that Fitzpatrick was drunk when he arrived at the Kellys, that while he was waiting for Dan, he made a pass at Kate, and Dan threw him to the floor.
In the ensuing struggle, Fitzgerald drew his revolver, Ned appeared, and with his brother seized the constable, disarming him, but not before he struck his wrist against the projecting part of the door lock, an injury he claimed to be a gunshot wound.
Kelly claimed that this injustice exasperated him, and led to his taking to the bush. Kelly said about the incident, "It was in the course of this attempted arrest Fitzpatrick endeavoured to catch hold of me by the foot, and in the struggle he tore the sole and heel of my boot clean off. With one well-directed blow, I sent him sprawling against the wall, and the staggering blow I then gave him partly accounts to me for his subsequent conduct towards my family and myself.
It is reported that in the aftermath, Kelly ominously foreshadowed the crime that would eventually sentence him to death, and told Lonigan, "Well, Lonigan, I never shot a man yet. But if ever I do, so help me God, you'll be the first. At the Benalla Court, on 17 May , Williamson, Skillion and Ellen Kelly, while on remand, were charged with aiding and abetting attempted murder.
Despite Fitzpatrick's doctor reporting a strong smell of alcohol on the constable and his inability to confirm the wrist wound was caused by a bullet,  Fitzpatrick's evidence was accepted by the police, the judge, and the jury made up of several ex-police, a shanty keeper who did business with the police,  and according to J. Kenneally, "others who were prejudiced against the Kellys". The three were convicted on Fitzpatrick's evidence.
Fitzpatrick's evidence would later be corroborated by Williamson when he was interviewed in prison by Captain Frederick Standish.
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Barry stated that if Kelly were present he would "give him 15 years". Ellen Kelly's sentence was considered unfair even by people who had no cause to be Kelly sympathizers. Alfred Wyatt, a police magistrate headquartered in Benalla, told the commission later that "I thought the sentence upon that old woman, Mrs Kelly, a very severe one. After the sentences were handed down in Benalla Police Court, both Ned and Dan Kelly doubted that they could convince the police of their story. The police had received information that the Kelly gang were in the Wombat Ranges, at the head of the King River.
On 25 October , two police parties were secretly dispatched—one from Greta, consisting of five men, with Sergeant Steele in command,  and one from Mansfield with four men, with the intention of executing a pincer movement. All were in civilian dress. Early the next day, Kennedy and Scanlon went down to the creek to explore, leaving McIntyre to attend to camp duty. At about noon Lonigan heard a strange noise down by the creek and McIntyre went to investigate, hoping that it could be some kangaroos that he could shoot for dinner.
Instead, he shot and killed some parrots which he cooked for dinner. Unaware at the time, the sound of the shots alerted the bushrangers to their location. At about 5pm, McIntyre was at the fire making tea, with Lonigan by him, when they were suddenly surprised by the Kelly gang with the cry, "Bail up, hold up your arms". McIntyre testified that Kelly took his fowling piece , and that all the gang members were armed.
Having left his revolver at the tent door, McInytre held up his hands as directed. Lonigan went for cover behind a tree and, at the same time, put his hand on his revolver. Kelly shot him in the temple. He died a few seconds later. Kelly remarked, "What a pity; what made the fool run? They took Lonigan and McIntyre's revolvers, and helped themselves to articles from the tent. Kelly talked to McIntyre and expressed his wonder that the police should have been so foolhardy as to look for him in the ranges. It was evident that he knew the exact state of the camp, the number of police and the description of the horses.
He asked where the other two were, and told McIntyre he would kill him if he lied. McIntyre revealed their whereabouts and pleaded for their lives:. I told [Kelly] that they were both countrymen and co-religionists of his own. I thought he might be possessed of some of that patriotic-religious feeling which is such a bond of sympathy amongst the Irish people. My opinion is that he possessed none of this feeling. On the question of religion I believe he was apathetic, and like a great many young bushmen he prided himself more on his Australian birth than he did upon his extraction from any particular race.
A favourite expression of his was: 'I will let them see what one native [native-born Australian] can do. McIntyre asked whether he was to be shot. Kelly replied, "No, why should I want to shoot you? Could I not have done it half an hour ago if I had wanted? If you had been, I would have roasted you in the fire". It is a shame to see fine big strapping fellows like you in a lazy loafing billet like policemen". McIntyre asked what they would do if he induced his comrades to surrender.
Kelly stated, "I'll shoot no man if he holds up his hands", and that he would detain them all night, as he wanted a sleep, and let them go next morning without their guns or horses. McIntyre said that he would induce them to surrender if Kelly kept his word, and added that one of the two had many children.
Kelly said, "You can depend on us". Kelly stated that Fitzpatrick was the cause of all this; that his mother and the rest had been unjustly "lagged" at Beechworth. He told McIntyre to leave the police force. McIntyre agreed, saying that he had thought about it for some time due to bad health. Ned asked McIntyre why their search party was carrying so much ammunition. McIntyre replied that it was to shoot kangaroos. At about pm Kelly then heard the approach of Kennedy and Scanlan, and the four gang members concealed themselves, some behind logs, and one in the tent.
They forced McIntyre to sit on a log, and Kelly threatened, "Mind, I have a rifle for you if you give any alarm". Kennedy and Scanlan rode into the camp. McIntyre went forward and said, "Sergeant, I think you had better dismount and surrender, as you are surrounded". Kelly at the same time called out, "Put up your hands". Kennedy appeared to think it was Lonigan who called out, and that a jest was intended, for he smiled and put his hand on his revolver case.
He was instantly fired at,  but not hit. Kennedy then realised the hopelessness of his position, jumped off his horse, and begged for his life, "It's all right, stop it, stop it". Scanlan jumped down and tried to make for a tree, but before he could unsling his rifle, he was shot and killed. This account has been disputed by the great grandson of Sergeant Kennedy, who claims the story has been altered down the years in order to embellish the Kelly myth. He claims Kennedy was wounded twice in a hopeless fight, captured, and then murdered two hours later.
McIntyre, believing that the gang intended to shoot the whole party,  fled on Kennedy's horse. Several shots were fired at McIntyre as he dashed down the creek but none reached him, the rifles apparently being empty by that stage and only the revolvers available. Ned later wrote that he never intended to kill McIntyre "as I did not like to shoot him after he had surrendered".
Suffering from a severe fall during his escape and with his clothes in tatters, McIntyre concealed himself in a wombat hole until dark, taking note of the direction of the setting sun. At dark, he set about to strike the Benalla road by trekking west, guided by a star.
After crossing a number of streams, his feet became chafed, and had to walk with one of his boots off. After a rest, and using a match to illuminate a small compass, he travelled about 20 miles until he reached a farmhouse outside Mansfield, on Sunday afternoon.
He then travelled by buggy to Mansfield and then directly to the residence of Sub-Inspector Pewtress. They had only two rifles. They reached the camp with the assistance of a guide, Mr. Monk, at 2 am. There they found the bodies of Scanlan and Lonigan, as well as the tent burnt and possessions looted or destroyed. The post-mortem, by Dr Reynolds, showed that Lonigan had received seven wounds, one through the eyeball. Scanlan's body had four shot-marks with the fatal wound caused by a rifle ball which went clean through the lungs.
Additional shots had been fired into the dead bodies so that all of the gang might be equally implicated. No trace had yet been discovered of Kennedy, and the same day as Scanlan and Lonigan's funeral, another failed search party was launched.
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His body was found a few days later by Henry G. Sparrow, several hundred metres north-west from the campsite, near Germans Creek. The deadline for their voluntary surrender was set at 12 November An employee named Fitzgerald, who was eating dinner at the time, looked at Ned toying nonchalantly with a revolver, and said, "Well, of course, if the gentlemen want any refreshment they must have it". No interference was offered to the women. McCauley, returned and was promptly held up. Near sunset, hawker James Gloster arrived at the station to camp for the night. Earlier, he brushed off warnings that the place was held up by the Kelly gang, and when accosted by Ned, responded angrily and attempted to get a revolver from his wagon.
Ned threatened to shoot him, saying it would be easy to do so if the hawker "did not keep a civil tongue in his head". Gloster asked the bushranger who he was. The Kellys stole new suits and a revolver from Gloster's stock as they wanted to look presentable at the bank. They offered the hawker money for them to which he refused.
After sunset the hostages were allowed some fresh air. McCauley was surrounded by the bushrangers and Kelly said, "You are armed, we have found a lot of ammunition in the house". The following afternoon, leaving Byrne in charge of the hostages, the other three axed the telegraph poles and cut the wires to sever the town's police link to Benalla.
Three or four railway men endeavoured to interfere, but they too were taken hostage. The bushrangers then went to the bank with a small cheque drawn by McCauley. The bank having closed before their arrival, Ned forced the clerk to open it and cash the cheque. Scott himself invited the outlaws to drink whisky with him, which they did. The whole party went to Younghusband's where the rest of the hostages were. The evening seems to have passed quite pleasantly. McCauley remarked to Kelly that the police might come along, which would mean a fight.
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Kelly replied, "I wish they would, for there is plenty of cover here". Just before they left, Kelly noticed that a Mr. McDougall was wearing a watch, and asked for it. McDougall replied that it was a gift from his dead mother. Kelly declared that he wouldn't take it under any consideration, and very soon afterwards the four of the outlaws left. What is unusual is that these stirring events happened without the people in the town knowing of anything.
In January police under the command of Captain Standish, Superintendent Hare, and Officer Sadleir arrested all known Kelly friends and purported sympathisers, a total of 23 people, including Tom Lloyd  and Wild Wright, and held them without charge in Beechworth Gaol  for over three months. According to Hare:. All the responsible men in charge of different stations who had been a long time in Benalla—the detectives and officers—were all collected at Benalla by Captain Standish's orders.
I had nothing to do with it, merely listening and taking down names that fell from the mouths of men. Public opinion was turning against the police on the matter, and on 22 April the remainder of the sympathizers were released. None were given money or transported back to their hometowns; all had to find their way back "25, 30, and even 50 miles" on their own. According to a Coonamble resident who encountered the Kellys at Glenrowan, Ned had heard that an individual named Sullivan had given evidence, and that he had travelled by train from Melbourne to Rutherglen.
The Kelly gang then followed him there, but was told that he went to Uralla across the border in New South Wales. By the time they got to Uralla, Sullivan had left for Wagga Wagga. They followed him there but lost sight of him. Kelly thought that he might have travelled to Hay , so they took off in that direction but later gave up their chase. On their return home, they passed through Jerilderie , and the gang then decided to rob the bank. According to J. Kenneally, however, the gang arrived at Jerilderie having crossed the Murray River at Burramine.
The group had heard of a crossing there, from where they could swim their horses but did not know where the landing place was on the opposite side of the river, so had Tom Lloyd investigate the river was guarded by border police. After unsuccessfully trying to cross on his own, Lloyd employed the help of an owner of a hotel nearby, who pulled him across in a boat with Lloyd's horse paddling behind.
After reporting the trip back to the rest of the gang, the group appropriated the boat to get across in two trips. Dan Kelly and Steve Hart reached Davidson's Hotel two miles south of Jerilderie on Saturday 2 February in time for tea, while the others waited in another area. At about midnight on 8 February, the gang surrounded the Jerilderie Police Station. Ned rode to the front and shouted for the policemen to come out, claiming there was a drunken brawl at Davidson's Hotel.
Constables George Devine and Henry Richards emerged and asked the stranger for more information. Once Ned established there were no other policemen inside, the gang held them up and locked them in a cell. After this, he let them return to sleep, and with the rest of the gang stayed in the dining room until morning. There was a chapel in the courthouse, yards from the barracks. Mrs Devine's duty was to prepare the courthouse for mass. The next day, Sunday, she was allowed to do so, but was accompanied by one of the Kellys. Hart and Dan Kelly, dressed in police uniform, walked to and from the stables during the day without attracting notice.
On Monday morning Byrne brought two horses to be shod, but the blacksmith suspected something strange in his manner, [ citation needed ] so he noted the horse's brands according to Kenneally, the blacksmith was struck by the quality of these so-called police horses and thus noted their brands; according also to this version, the shoeing of the horses was charged to the government of New South Wales. They all went to the Royal Hotel, where Cox, the landlord, told Richards that his companions were the Kellys. Ned Kelly said they wanted rooms at the Royal, and revealed his intentions to rob the bank.
Hart and Byrne rode to the back and told the groom to stable their horses, but not to give them any feed. Hart went into the kitchen of the hotel, a few yards from the back entrance to the bank. Byrne then entered the rear of the bank, when he met the accountant, Mr Living, who told him to use the front entrance. Byrne displayed his revolver and induced him to surrender. Kenneally wrote, "The shock caused Living to stutter and it has been alleged that he stuttered for the rest of his life".
Ned Kelly secured the bank manager, Mr Tarleton, who was ordered to open the safes.
When this was done, he was put in with the others. All were liberated at a quarter to three. After the manager had been secured, Ned Kelly took Living back to the bank and asked him how much money they had. Kelly asked if they had more money, and Living answered "No". Kelly tried to open the safe's treasure drawer, and one of the keys was given to him; but he needed the second key.
Kelly noticed a deed-box. The group then went to the hotel where Kelly burned three or four bank books containing mortgage documents, in an effort to erase the debts and create losses for the banks, though not realizing that some had copies held by the titles office in Sydney. Before leaving the hotel, Kelly made a speech to the hostages, mainly on the Fitzpatrick incident and the Stringybark killings.
He then placed his revolver on the bar and announced, "Anyone here may take it and shoot me dead, but if I'm shot, Jerilderie shall swim in its own blood. Gribble, and forced him to return it. Hart took a new saddle from the saddler's. Two splendid police horses were taken, and other horses were wanted, but the residents claimed that they belonged to women, and McDougall in order to keep his race mare "protested that he was a comparatively poor man"  and Kelly relented.
The telegraph operators were also incarcerated. Byrne took possession of the office, and destroyed all the telegrams sent that day and cut all the wires. The disarmed and unhorsed police had no other means of following the gang. Months prior to arriving in Jerilderie, Kelly composed a lengthy letter with the aim of tracing his path to outlawry, justifying his actions, and outlining the injustices he and his family suffered at the hands of the police.
He also decries the treatment of poor selector families by Victoria's Squattocracy , and, in "an escalating promise of revenge and retribution", invokes "a mythical tradition of Irish rebellion" against what he calls "the tyrannism of the English yoke". While holding up Jerilderie, Kelly gave the letter, what he called "a bit of my life", to Edwin Living, a local bank accountant, and demanded that he deliver it to the editor of the Jerilderie and Urana Gazette for publication.
The entire letter was rediscovered and published in The letter was Kelly's second attempt at writing a chronicle of his life and times. Shorter than the Jerilderie Letter, it too was intended for a wide readership, but only a synopsis was published in the press. We hear the living speaker in a way that no other document in our history achieves". The reward money had a demoralizing effect on them: "The capture of the Kellys was desired by these officers, but they were very jealous as to where they themselves would come in when the reward money would be allotted.
This led to very serious quarrels among the heads From early March to June , nothing was heard of the gang's whereabouts. As Thomas Aubrey wrote in his Mirror article,. In the months after Jerilderie, public opinion turned sharply against Commissioner Standish and the officers and men of the police and artillery corps who crowded into the towns of North-Eastern Victoria. Critics were quick to point out that the brave constables took good care to remain in the towns leaving the outlaws almost complete freedom of the bush, their natural home.
Amid low public confidence in the ability of the police, wrote Thomas Aubrey, "many believed that the gang had already made their escape to another colony while their pursuers wandered about Victoria receiving, but never earning, double pay and considerable 'danger' money". In the meantime, the gang were comfortably camped in the hills near the Kelly farm at Eleven Mile Creek, where they discussed police efforts and plans for their future.
In late March , Kelly's sisters Kate and Margaret asked the captain of the Victoria Cross how much he would charge to take "four or five gentlemen friends" to California from Queenscliff. On 31 March, an unidentified man arranged an appointment with the captain at the General Post Office to give a definite answer for the cost. The captain contacted police, who placed a large number of detectives and plain-clothes police throughout the building, but the man failed to appear.
There is no evidence that Kelly's sisters were enquiring on behalf of the gang, and was reported in the Argus as "without foundation". According to Tom Lloyd, the gang "frequently discussed their plans for the future", and he suggested they go to Queensland one at a time where they could join up again. He felt that "a few years in the tropical climate" would render them unrecognizable. The gang came to the conclusion however that they would be forever estranged there and would lack the kind of whole-hearted support they had been getting in Victoria, and that their best recourse was to resolve their issues with the Victoria and New South Wales state governments.
In late , Kelly agreed to be interviewed in person by journalist J. Archibald of the Sydney Daily Telegraph , but it fell through when the newspaper refused to run the story. While Ned and Dan still had prior warrants outstanding for the attempted murder of Fitzpatrick, technically Hart and Byrne were free men although the police could still re-issue the murder warrants. In April a "Notice of Withdrawal of Reward" was posted by the government [ clarification needed ].
It stated that after 20 July the Government would "absolutely cancel and withdraw the offer for the reward". I look upon Ned Kelly as an extraordinary man; there is no man in the world like him, he is superhuman. During the Kelly outbreak, police watch parties monitored houses belonging to relatives of the gang, including that of Byrne's mother in the Woolshed Valley, near Beechworth.
The police used the house of her neighbour, former Greta mob member and lifelong friend of Byrne, Aaron Sherritt , as a base of operations, sleeping in it during the day and keeping watch from nearby caves at night. Sherritt accepted police payments for camping with the watch parties and for providing information on the bushrangers' activities.